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Curve25519 is an elliptic curve. See

  1. X25519
  4. X25519_SHARED_KEY_LEN
  5. X25519_keypair
  6. X25519
  7. X25519_public_from_private
  8. Ed25519
  10. ED25519_PUBLIC_KEY_LEN
  12. ED25519_keypair
  13. ED25519_sign
  14. ED25519_verify
  15. ED25519_keypair_from_seed
  16. SPAKE2
  17. spake2_role_t
  18. SPAKE2_CTX_new
  19. SPAKE2_CTX_free
  21. SPAKE2_generate_msg
  23. SPAKE2_process_msg


X25519 is the Diffie-Hellman primitive built from curve25519. It is sometimes referred to as “curve25519”, but “X25519” is a more precise name. See and

#define X25519_PRIVATE_KEY_LEN 32
#define X25519_PUBLIC_VALUE_LEN 32
#define X25519_SHARED_KEY_LEN 32

X25519_keypair sets out_public_value and out_private_key to a freshly generated, public–private key pair.

OPENSSL_EXPORT void X25519_keypair(uint8_t out_public_value[32],
                                   uint8_t out_private_key[32]);

X25519 writes a shared key to out_shared_key that is calculated from the given private key and the peer's public value. It returns one on success and zero on error.

Don't use the shared key directly, rather use a KDF and also include the two public values as inputs.

OPENSSL_EXPORT int X25519(uint8_t out_shared_key[32],
                          const uint8_t private_key[32],
                          const uint8_t peer_public_value[32]);

X25519_public_from_private calculates a Diffie-Hellman public value from the given private key and writes it to out_public_value.

OPENSSL_EXPORT void X25519_public_from_private(uint8_t out_public_value[32],
                                               const uint8_t private_key[32]);


Ed25519 is a signature scheme using a twisted-Edwards curve that is birationally equivalent to curve25519.

Note that, unlike RFC 8032's formulation, our private key representation includes a public key suffix to make multiple key signing operations with the same key more efficient. The RFC 8032 key private key is referred to in this implementation as the "seed" and is the first 32 bytes of our private key.

#define ED25519_PRIVATE_KEY_LEN 64
#define ED25519_PUBLIC_KEY_LEN 32
#define ED25519_SIGNATURE_LEN 64

ED25519_keypair sets out_public_key and out_private_key to a freshly generated, public–private key pair.

OPENSSL_EXPORT void ED25519_keypair(uint8_t out_public_key[32],
                                    uint8_t out_private_key[64]);

ED25519_sign sets out_sig to be a signature of message_len bytes from message using private_key. It returns one on success or zero on error.

OPENSSL_EXPORT int ED25519_sign(uint8_t out_sig[64], const uint8_t *message,
                                size_t message_len,
                                const uint8_t private_key[64]);

ED25519_verify returns one iff signature is a valid signature, by public_key of message_len bytes from message. It returns zero otherwise.

OPENSSL_EXPORT int ED25519_verify(const uint8_t *message, size_t message_len,
                                  const uint8_t signature[64],
                                  const uint8_t public_key[32]);

ED25519_keypair_from_seed calculates a public and private key from an Ed25519 “seed”. Seed values are not exposed by this API (although they happen to be the first 32 bytes of a private key) so this function is for interoperating with systems that may store just a seed instead of a full private key.

OPENSSL_EXPORT void ED25519_keypair_from_seed(uint8_t out_public_key[32],
                                              uint8_t out_private_key[64],
                                              const uint8_t seed[32]);


SPAKE2 is a password-authenticated key-exchange. It allows two parties, who share a low-entropy secret (i.e. password), to agree on a shared key. An attacker can only make one guess of the password per execution of the protocol.


spake2_role_t enumerates the different “roles” in SPAKE2. The protocol requires that the symmetry of the two parties be broken so one participant must be “Alice” and the other be “Bob”.

enum spake2_role_t {

SPAKE2_CTX_new creates a new SPAKE2_CTX (which can only be used for a single execution of the protocol). SPAKE2 requires the symmetry of the two parties to be broken which is indicated via my_role – each party must pass a different value for this argument.

The my_name and their_name arguments allow optional, opaque names to be bound into the protocol. For example MAC addresses, hostnames, usernames etc. These values are not exposed and can avoid context-confusion attacks when a password is shared between several devices.

    enum spake2_role_t my_role,
    const uint8_t *my_name, size_t my_name_len,
    const uint8_t *their_name, size_t their_name_len);

SPAKE2_CTX_free frees ctx and all the resources that it has allocated.


SPAKE2_MAX_MSG_SIZE is the maximum size of a SPAKE2 message.

#define SPAKE2_MAX_MSG_SIZE 32

SPAKE2_generate_msg generates a SPAKE2 message given password, writes it to out and sets *out_len to the number of bytes written.

At most max_out_len bytes are written to out and, in order to ensure success, max_out_len should be at least SPAKE2_MAX_MSG_SIZE bytes.

This function can only be called once for a given SPAKE2_CTX.

It returns one on success and zero on error.

OPENSSL_EXPORT int SPAKE2_generate_msg(SPAKE2_CTX *ctx, uint8_t *out,
                                       size_t *out_len, size_t max_out_len,
                                       const uint8_t *password,
                                       size_t password_len);

SPAKE2_MAX_KEY_SIZE is the maximum amount of key material that SPAKE2 will produce.

#define SPAKE2_MAX_KEY_SIZE 64

SPAKE2_process_msg completes the SPAKE2 exchange given the peer's message in their_msg, writes at most max_out_key_len bytes to out_key and sets *out_key_len to the number of bytes written.

The resulting keying material is suitable for:
a) Using directly in a key-confirmation step: i.e. each side could
   transmit a hash of their role, a channel-binding value and the key
   material to prove to the other side that they know the shared key.
b) Using as input keying material to HKDF to generate a variety of subkeys
   for encryption etc.

If max_out_key_key is smaller than the amount of key material generated then the key is silently truncated. If you want to ensure that no truncation occurs then max_out_key should be at least SPAKE2_MAX_KEY_SIZE.

You must call SPAKE2_generate_msg on a given SPAKE2_CTX before calling this function. On successful return, ctx is complete and calling SPAKE2_CTX_free is the only acceptable operation on it.

Returns one on success or zero on error.

OPENSSL_EXPORT int SPAKE2_process_msg(SPAKE2_CTX *ctx, uint8_t *out_key,
                                      size_t *out_key_len,
                                      size_t max_out_key_len,
                                      const uint8_t *their_msg,
                                      size_t their_msg_len);